Home Friesland 1664 Schotanus Maps 1718 Schotanus Maps Old Friesland maps Vintage Africa maps Southern Africa Maps Bladmuziek / Sheetmusic Genealogy

Maps of the Holy Land 1500 - 1900

Photos of the Holy Land 1800s & 1900s

Shema Hear o Israel (by Adrian Snell, 1980)

Terra Sancta, Canaan, Promised Land, 12 Tribes, Iudae et Israhel, Israel - Judea, Judea - Samaria - Galilee, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Palestine (Mandate), Land of Israel

This collection of maps of the Holy Land, crossroads of the world (the silk and spice routes) and continents (Africa, Asia and Europe), and an area with the longest mapping history in the world, covers here predominantly the period 1500 – 1900. The earliest maps build on he known world in Ptolemy's time, however limited, from which later map making traditions stem. While the subject is mostly the tribal distribution of the Holy Land as per Biblical promises to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the past and future, the embellishments are clearly from the age of enlightenment, as evidenced by the map makers beautiful cartouches from the period of 1600 to 1800, showing scenes of the Old Testament (Moses on Sinai, the Temple, Priests, the Ark), but also of Romans times in the New Testament (Jesus' crucifixion, Roman soldiers), before it was renamed 'Palestine' by the Romans in 135AD, some hundred years after Christ's death and resurrection. Jerusalem, city of peace, was also renamed 'Colonia Aelia Capitolina', named after the Roman cult of the Capitoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva).

John 3:14-15

The area, in particular the Christian Holy places, was of great interest to the Byzantines, and the subsequent Crusaders must have used maps to find their own way around from Europe. Suffering four hundred years of stagnation under the yoke of the Ottomans, no geographical information was added to the subject of Palestine maps, since the land was a barren waste and largely uninhabited, as corroborated by many photos and travelogues below, until the modern age, when the names Judea, Samaria and Galilee are again in common use. This more 'recent' period of 1800 - 1900 is mostly represented by functional school atlas maps, without the embellishments that make the earlier maps so interesting, but often with insets of city maps of Jerusalem, that are similarly useful. A detailed map of Jerusalem from the 1890's by the Schneller's Syrian Orphanage (with Armenian children from Syria) is exceptionally detailed.

Detailed Map of Jerusalem around the 1890s

CNTL +/- for larger/smaller

1535 Ortelius, Terra Sancta, Upside down map

1540, Sebastian Munster, Terra Sancta XVI Nova Tabula, HiRes

1540, Munster, Terra Sancta XVI Nova Tabula 'Ptolemy Geographia Universalis'

1545 Munster, Terra Sancta XXIII Nova Tabula - Upside Down Map, HiRes

1570 Ortelius Terra Sancta

1572 Ortelius, Terra Sancta from Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Antwerp, HiRes

1581 H. Bunting, Holy Land, from Itinerarium Sacrae Scripturae

1586, Ortelius, 'Abrahams Wanderings and Life' HiRes

1588, Munster, Das_Heilig_Lande mit der 12 Geschlechten, HiRes

1592, Ortelius, Heiliges Land Israel Palaestina

1632 Mercator Hondius, Holy Land

1632 Mercator Hondius, Holy Land, HiRes

1635 Willem Blaeu, Holy Land from 'Theatrum Orbis Terrarum', HiRes.jpg

1635, Ortelius (Christiano Schrot), Terra Sancta, with Jona and the Fish

1657, Visscher, De Gelegentheyt van 't Paradys ende 't Land Canaan

1659 Nicolaas Visscher, Holy Land

1679 Gulielmo Sanson, Israel et Iuda

1680 Frederik de Wit, Terra Sancta sive Promissiones

1680 Apostles and Paul's travels by N Visscher

1698 Teodor Dankerts, Holy Land

1698, Nouvelle Carte de la Terre Sainte, Judea Samaria

1699 Huberto Taillot, Iudaea seu Terra Sancta

1700 Gulielmo Sanson, Iudaea seu Terra Sancta Hebraeorum sive Israelitarum

1725 Seutter, Augsburg, the Holy Land

1730 Homann, Terra Sancta Iudaea sue Palestina Iuda Israel

1738 Wells, the Holy Land Israel Palestine

1750 Homann (Ferdinando), Map of Israel - Palestine - Holy Land - 12 Tribes, HiRes

1759 August_Vindel, map Holy Land and 12 Tribes, HiRes

1759, Ludovico Magno, Holy Land and 12 Tribes, HiRes

1763 brothers de L'isle, Terrae Sanctae Tabula

1791 R Bonne J Lattre, Twelve Tribes of Israel - Twaalfstammenrijk

1794 R Wilkinson, Canaan or the land of promise to Abraham

1849 Atlas Map of Ottoman Palestine by Alexander G. Findlay

1865 Spruner, Detailed map of the Holy Land, HiRes

1850 Ottoman Palestine / Holy Land

1891 Ottoman Palestine / Holy Land

1893 Ottoman Palestine / Holy Land

1897 Palestine part of Turkey / Holy Land

1903 Ottoman Palestine / Holy Land

1945 Palestine and (Trans)Jordan under British Mandate 1918-1948.jpg / Holy Land

Holy Land History:

the Hebrews/Israelites = 1666 years

Babylonians = 50 years

Persians = 200 years

Greek Seleucids = 200 years

Romans = 300 years

Byzantines = 300 Years

Arabs = 460 years

Crusaders = 150 years

Mamlukes = 250 years

Turks = 400 years

British = 30 years

After 1948: the Jews, and counting

Vintage Holy Land Pictures and Art (Ludwig Schneller, 1891):

Of the three categroies: the casual traveler interested in the Holy Places, the more observant Orientalist watching customs and habits, author Ludwig Schneller belongs in the third category, born in Jerusalem and raised in the Holy Land, fluent in Arabic and totally familiar with its people. His parents founded the Syrian Orphanage just outside Jerusalem and it later became his own biggest occupation (as 'Father Schneller'), accepting orphaned Arab children from Palestine, and from surrounding areas of conflict like the Lebanon (Syria) in 1860s, and Armenians in 1894. They learned vocational skills and useful languages, as a means to support themselves. The author describes the land of Palestine from the inside out, not caring about the so-called Holy Places that 'do more to obscure than reveal', but the people in their poverty, who like a wind-blown harp, sound notes from ancient peoples like the Hittites, Canaanites, and Isrealites. Subjects covered are very illuminating, and are always linked to ways of the Old Testament: agriculture, foods, dress, meals, dwellings, music, weddings and funerals, and the language. He travels the land and makes the Bible come alive with countless anecdotes (the upper rOom, the fig tree, being unequally yoked), a must read for all who wish to understand the life of Jesus and His disciples.

CNTL +/- for larger/smaller

1890 Jaffa, the ancient Joppa

1890 Jerusalem, as seen from the North

1890 Jerusalem, detailed map

1890 Jerusalem, city view

1890 Jerusalem, view of northern 'Benjamins Mountains'

1890 Jerusalem, city view

1890 Jerusalem, Christian Quarter

1890 Jerusalem, Herod's Tower ruins of Phafael (or Hippicus)

1890 Jerusalem, Felladjin family

1890 Jerusalem, Protestant Cemetary on Mt Sion

1890 Jerusalem, Protestant Cemetaery, Schneller's tomb

1890 Lifta, the ancient Nephtoah, showing the divide between Judah and Benjamin

1890 Jerusalem, Road to Bethlehem

1890 Oh little town of Bethlehem

1890 Hebron where the Hebrew patriarhs are burried

1890 Mount Hermon

1890 El Scheech, Mohamedan Mausoleum

1890 Mizpa Samuel

1890 Cliffs of Beirut

1890 Beirut, journey to Sidon by boat

1890 Sidon

1890 Tyre

1890 Jerusalem, Arminian Orphan Transport from Eufrates & Tigris to the 'Syrian Orphanage'

1890 Jerusalem, Syrian Orphanage Home of the Blind

1890 Jerusalem, Syrian Orphanage Buildings

1890 Jerusalem, Syrian Orphanage Chapel

1890 Jerusalem, Syrian Orphanage Dining Hall

1890 Jerusalem, Syrian Orphanage Brassband

1890 Jerusalem, Syrian Orphanage, Parsonage

1890 Syrian Orphanage Workshop

1890 Syrian Orphanage, Rock Quarry with hewn graves

Cover Schneller Patriarch of the Protestant Mission in the Holy Land, Schneller, 1897

1890 Syrian Orphanage - South Court

1890 Syrian Orphanage - North Court

1890 Syrian Orphanage

1890 Syrian Orphanage

1890 Syrian Orphanage Kitchen

1890 Syrian Orphanage, Orphans in front of Mt of Olives

1890 Syrian Orphanage, Girl Orphans

1890 Syrian Orphanage, annual wheat harvest

1890 Syrian Orphanage, annual wheat harvest

1890 Syrian Orphanage, wheat caravan

1890 Bethlehem

1890 Jericho Bedouin Camp

1890 Lydda (Lod), Palmtrees with 20% of the Mohamedans blind

1890 Jerusalem, Temple Mount

1890 Jerusalem Jews praying at the Temple Wall

1890 Jerusalem Top of Mount of Olives

Vintage Holy Land /Arabia Pictures Ventures among Arabs (by Archibald Forder, 1905):

1905: Archibald Forder dwells and travels amongs the nomadic Arabs of the three regions, Arabia Petra (North), Arabia Deserta (Middle) and Arabia Felix (South), including areas of greater Palestine. He captures on paper and film many unknown aspects of Arab desert life, hidden from everyday view. He discovers many customs that hark back unchanged to referenced Biblical times, such as wedding ceremonies and rites of mournings, use of language, land purchases, hiding valuables, customary hospitality to strangers, serving meals and coffee. He identifies the various tribes and relates their names to the early biblical times (Ishmael, Esau (Edom), Gideon, Kedar, Moab etc). Many skills of survival are shown in harsh desert conditions, such as finding and storing water, churning butter in sheep skins, ovens and the daily mill to grind grains into flour for daily bread. The author also describes the celestial origins and terrestial tenets of the Mohamedan faith, which in the absense of assurance of salvation, leaves one with the various works required to ensure sympathy of the Eternal Judge.

CNTL +/- for larger/smaller

1905 the river Jordan

1905 Interior of an Arab house

1905 Arab encampment in the Desert

1905 Arabs of Moab

1905 an Arab Sheikh

1905 Ovens used by Arabs

1905 Mr Forders home in Moab

1905 Arab Woman showing dowry as money on head

1905 Bedouin tent

1905 The fords of river Arnon

1905 Mr Forder in Arab dress

1905 Bedouin women, daughters of the desert

1905 North shore of the desert

1905 Arabs enjoying a social meal

1905 Mrs Forder

1905 an Eastern caravansery

1905 Making coffee, a man's job

1905 Drawing water at Beersheba

1905 Hagar's well

1905 Cenotaph over Aaron's tomb in Edom

1905 Section of the ravine at Petra in Edom

1905 Christian woman of Moab

1905 Calvary, outside the wall

1905 Old tower and castle at Sulkhud

1905 Stone doors at Bashan

1905 Druze Chiefs South of Damascus

1905 Moving tents, a woman's job

1905 Caravan resting after a journey

1905 The chief of Kaf

1905 Temporary tent hospital in the desert, a place to die

1905 the chief's wife

1905 Water filled in goat-skins for travel

1905 the castle of the Jowf

1905 Marid, stronghold of the Jowf

1905 Arabs of Northern Arabia

1905 Crossing the desert

1905 Gathering salt in the desert

1905 Date palm, with fruit ripe unto harvest

1905 Arab Woman churning butter

1905 View of the river Abana in Damascus

1905 an Arab fiddler

1905 Grinding at the Mill for daily bread

1905 Pharaohs Treasure, the masterpiece of Edom

1905 Bird's eye View of Damascus

1905 Map of Arabia

1905 Index page 'Ventures Among Arabs', by Archibald Forder

1905 Cover page 'Ventures Among Arabs', by Archibald Forder

Vintage Holy Land Pictures Peasant Life in the Holy Land (by C.T. Wilson, 1906):

1906: Arabist and author Rev. C.T. Wilson writes about the people of Palestine more than the land (unlike the numerous travelogues of the day), in particular the manners, customs and dialects of the Fellahin, the peasants of the land (as distinct from townsmen), who he links to the gentile tribes of Canaan. These unchanged customs, including dress, utensils, furniture, and farming, all relate back to Biblical times, and seem to have been passed over by waves of conquest. He describes the role of women, unveiled in the case of the Fellahah (female peasant), unlike the Baraghafeh, a tribe who claim to be descended from the prophet, and lock their women away behind doors and veils. The author tries to capture and record old ways of the past five millennia, at risk of disappearing in the new (20th century) days of trains and telegraphs.

CNTL +/- for larger/smaller


1906 Es Salt, the ancient Ramoth Gilead

1906 Mt Carmel, Place of Elijahs Sacrifice

1906 Sacred Oak near Tibneh

1906 Fellah

1906 Agricultural Implements

1906 Courtyard of Village Mosque

1906 Village East of the Jordan River

1906 Kanatir

1906 Sacred Tree

1906 Greek Convent of Mar Girius in Wadi Kelt

1906 An Aliyeh, the 'Upper Room', 2Kings4v10

1906 Shepherd and Sheep

1906 Roman Bridge over the Jordan River

1906 Parapet of Tiling

1906 Shop in Moab

1906 Christian Village School

1906 Women Sifting Wheat

1906 Grinding Wheat

1906 Flock Resting at Noon

1906 Tiberias

1906 Women going to Draw Water

1906 Peasant Woman Showing Head-dress

1906 Shepherd and Sheep

1906 Oak Grove, Jebel Ajlun

1906 Preparing Firewood for Market

1906 Camel carrying Stone

1906 Hillside close to Jerusalem

1906 Sower

1906 a Fellah

1906 Cattle Hooves Threshing Wheat

1906 Ploughing

1906 Scene of Jonathan's Exploit at Mishmash

1906 Bethany

1906 Beating Olives

1906 Sakiyeh Treadmil pulling Jugs from Water Well

1906 Olive Grove

1906 Olives Drying in 'Upper Room'

1906 Fisherman

1906 Ruined Temple near Tobaz, the Ancient Thebez

1906 Weaving Haircloth for Tents

1906 Weaving

1906 Water Mill at Jebel Ajlun

1906 Great Mosque, Damascus

HolyLand/1906 Kissing the Hand

1906 Khan in the Lebanon

1906 Coffee Making

1906 Peasants of Jebel Aljun

1906 Hill Country

1906 Rujm, Cairns as Stone Markers

Vintage Holy Land Pictures (People of Palestine, Elisa Grant, 1906/1922):

1906: Author Elihu Grant writes on the peasantry of Western Palestine (i.e. excluding trans-Jordan, the much larger Eastern Palestine portion for many centuries). He covers the springs and rivers, hills and valleys, the lay of the land, as well as the climate and weather. Grant likens the peasants to the ancient Canaanites who got into the regular habit of converting at the point of a sword (Joshua's Hebrews, the Romans, the Muslims). As he describes the peasantry, one gets a feel for how people lived and worked, what methods they used, and most interestingly (with pictures), which tools and utensils were used to farm the barren land and manufacture basic goods one century ago.

CNTL +/- for larger/smaller

1907 Bread-making Utensils

1907 Pottery

1907 Various Articles made of Skin

1907 Household Utensils

1907 List of Household Utensils

1907 Siloam Woman with Child and Produce on Head

1907 River Auja, North of Jaffa

1907 Donkey at Threshing Floor with Wheat

1907 Wild Anemones From Wadi el Kelb

1907 Vineyard at Ram Allah

1907 Man with Basket of Olives at Ram Allah

1907 Stretch of Olive Trees on Road to Ayn Sinya

1907 Bedawy (Beduin) House

1907 Bedawy Drinking

1907 Peasants on the Way to Market with Produce

1907 Bedawin Horseman

1907 Womans Work

1907 Bringing Home the Bridal Trousseau

1907 Girls Pretending to Carry Loads

1907 Washing a Child

1907 a Swaddled Infant

1907 Three Kinds of Houses

1907 Women Gleaning Wheat

1907 Women Sifting Wheat

1907 to Jerusalem for the Neby Musa Procession

1907 Neby Musa Crowd at the Jaffa Gate

1907 Farming Implements

1907 Sower

1907 Children Gleaning

1907 Donkeys Threshing with cow

1907 Threshing Scene at the Old Pool at Bethel

1907 Spinning, Reeling, and Straightening Threads for the Loom

1907 Market Scene Peasantry near Davids Tower in Jerusalem

1907 Women at the Well

1907 Fountain at Nazareth

1907 House Roofing Bee at Tayyibeh

1907 Ram Allah, Matron at her Door

1907 Camel Carrying Clay Jars

1907 Ram Allah as entered from the Walled Road from the East

1907 Little Girls of the Village

1907 Village of Ram Allah and Outlying Vineyards

1907 El Bireh from the South

1907 Vineyards and Stone Watch Towers

1907 Donkey with Cow Plowing

1907 Primitive Bedawin Rug Weaving

1907 Straw Mat and Basket Making by Jifna Woman

1907 Months of the Year

1907 Index page, People of Palestine, by Elihu Grant

Vintage Holy Land Pictures Immovable East (by P. Baldersperger, 1913):

Filip J. Baldensperger was born in 1856 and grew up as son of German missionaries to Palestine, who ran a school for some 70 Arabic-speaking youths. This book 'Immovable East' describes the life in 19th century Palestine of Bedawin (Bedouins) and Fellahin (Fellah = peasant or ploughman in Arabic), who he holds to be of Canaanite descent. He shows that the customs and lifestyles are linked to a common immovable past (despite numerous invasions by Egyptians, Syrians, Chaldean, Greeks, Romans), not unlike Israelite times of old in the Bible, and how ancient pre-Israelite Canaanite beliefs and superstitions strongly influence the Mohammedan faith (note how Gibbon in 'Decline And Fall of the Roman Empire' (Ch6, Pt2) talks of the Eastern cult of Egalabalus (Baal) in Emesa Syria, which revered 'a black conical stone, which, as it was universally believed, had fallen from heaven on that sacred place').

1913 Map of 'Modern Palestine', by Pitman&Sons

CNTL +/- for larger/smaller

1913 Tower of David

1913 Unequally Yoked Ploughing Team in Judea

1913 Fellah and his Camels on the banks of the Kishon

1913 Bedawi (Bedouin) of the Kishon

1913 by the Dead Sea

1913 A Line of Camels

1913 Dome of the Rock

1913 A Dervish

1913 Grotto of Elijah, Mt Carmel

1913 Dome of Ascension

1913 Map of Solomons Gardens and Environs

1913 Shepherd

1913 Solomons Pools and Caravansery

1913 Jaffa Gate Jerusalem

1913 Plains from Jericho and Dead Sea from Olivet

1913 Bedouin Tent in Valley of Achor

1913 Street in Jerusalem

1913 Shepherd and Sheep near Jerusalem

1913 Dan, Source of the Jordan

1913 Siloam, Fellehat going to Jerusalem

1913 Fellehat of Baltir going to Market

1913 Neiye or Zoomara

1913 Neby Moosa Procession and Holy Standard

1913 Tower of Ramleh

1913 Map of Modern Palestine by Pitman&Sons

1913 Index page

Vintage Holy Land Pictures (Paul Hommel, 1920s):

Paul Hommel of Stuttgart took these high quality black and white pictures photographs of the Holy Land around 1920. In the original version called 'Durch 's Gelobte Land' ('Through the Promised Land') it is Ludwig Schneller himself, closely acquainted with the land and people, who provided the narrative (his own photographs shown elsewhere). In the Dutch version published in 1934 'Door 't Beloofde Land', it is A van Deursen who provides the descriptions to the pictures, which provided the Biblical references to the scenes. The pictorial journey starts in the north in Lebanon, showing the magnificent Cedars of Lebanon, which helped build Solomon's Temple, further down thru Galilee, and the life around a lake, the rocky desert of Judea, Petra and Idumea and ending at Aqaba at the Red Sea.These may be the last photographs taken of the ancient way of life in the Holy Land, before new technologies like train and telegraph changed the pace of life forever.

CNTL +/- for larger/smaller

1920s View of the Valleys of Lebanon (Is40, 1Kings5, Deut3)

1920s Cedars of Lebanon (Jer18:14, Ez31, 2Sam7)

1920s Haifa, end point of the IPC oiline from Mosoel in Iraq

1920s Ruins of a Crusader Fortress at Atlit (built 1248), the last Citadel (1291)

1920s Carmel mountains with Kishon Stream Where Eliah Sacrificed (1Kings18, Judges5))

1920s Nazareth, and its ancient water well at front left (Luke1)

1920s Building of a House

1920s Nazarene Woman under a fig tree (Is.3, 1Kings4)

1920s Road from Nazareth leading North to Kana in Galilee (Luke4)

1920s Synagogue of Kapernaum (Mark1, John6)

1920s Fishermen at the Sea of Galilee (Matt4/13, John21)

1920s Lake of Gennesaret (Mark4, John6, Eccl.24)

1920s Rock Formation near Besan (Beth-Sean) overlooking the barren Jordan Valley (Joshua17, Judges1)

1920s Tiberias (Luke8:3)

1920s Tiberias and the Lake of Gennesaret

1920s Lake of Gennesaret (Luke9)

1920s Bedouins baking Bread (Judges6, 2Sam16)

1920s the Threshing Floor (Deut25, Ruth3)

1920s the Widow of Nain (Luke7)

1920s Samaritans'Neapolis (Nabloos) and Mt Gerazim (Gen12, Josh24, Judges9)

1920s Ruins of Gerasa (Decapolis). Left : temple of Artemis, right: thermal baths

1920s Jerusalem's Jaffa Gate (2Kings14)

1920s Jerusalem: Mt Ofel and Moria, Kedron-Valley, Mt of Olives at right (1Kings1, 2Sam15, 2Kings23)

1920s Moonlight over Jerusalem

1920s Jerusalem: the Temple Mount, where 12 yr old Jesus sat ((Luke2:46)

1920s the Dome of 17 pillars, former Location of the Herodian Temple Court of Women (John8, Acts4)

1920s Jerusalem's Wailing Wall: 28m long, 18m high

1920s Jerusalem: Ecce-Homo Arch on the Via Dolorosa: 'Behold the man' (John19:5)

1920s Jerusalem's Eastern Wall near Stephen's Gate, 12m high, built 1536

1920s Jerusalem: the Damascus Gate (Gen23, 2Kings7)

1920s Jerusalem: the Upper city (2Kings22:14)

1920s Jerusalem: the Garden of Gethsemane - 'oil press' (John18)

1920s Bedu child Shepherds inside the Damascus Gate (1Sam16:11)

1920s Jews in the Valley of Jehosafat (Lev9:27)

1920s Jerusalem: Church of the Sepulchre, outside the 'old' city (Heb13, Matt28)

1920s Jerusalem: Phasael, Tower of Herods' Palace, meeting place of the Oriental sages (Matt2)

1920s Fellah village, Cheeme, West of Bethlehem (Job4:19, Is1:3))

1920s Inside of Cheeme dwelling, one slept around the fire (Luke11)

1920s Sacred place of Abu Nabat near Cheeme

1920s Bethlehem: House of Bread (of the World)

1920s grinding wheat in a house in Bethlehem (Job41:15)

1920s Christian girl when Bethlehem was still a Christian Town (Jer2, Luke15, Ez16)

1920s busy street in Bethlehem (1Sam11, Neh8)

1920s Ephrata: Shepherds out in the field, keeping watch over their Sheep (Luke2)

1920s the good Shepherd in Judea (2Sam7, Amos7, Joh10)

1920s Hebron (Gen13/23/37, 2Sam2)

1920s Bethany, House of Figs

1920s Judean Desert (Jer2:31, Josh15)

1920s Judean Desert: Valley of Achor (or Wadi Kelt) (2Chr32)

1920s Judean Desert: St Georges Monastery built by Essenes (Luke2)

1920s Excavated Wall of Old Jericho, once 5.6m deep and 14m high (1Kings16)

1920s Desert near the lower Jordan River (Mark1, Matt3)

1920s the Jordan River (Josh3:17, 2Kings2, Zach11)

1920s the Jordan River: balsem of Gilead (Gen37, Jer8/46)

1920s Bedouin Sheikh with Bodyguard in front of his tent (Song of Sol1:5)

1920s Western Shore of the Dead Sea (Gen19, Deut29, Amos4, Is.Jer23, Zef21)

1920s Mouth of the Arnon into the Dead Sea (Num21:13, Deut2:36)

1920s Caravan (Gen37:25, Jer2)

1920s Ships of the Desert, Job owned 3000 (Job1:3)

1920s Eilat (=Palms) in Southern Israel (2Chron8:17)

1920s Salt Pillars at the Dead Sea, source of Asphalt (Gen14;1)

1920s Engedi, Diamond of the Desert (Song of Sol 1:14)

1920s Petra Mountains (Jer49, Ob.1:4): 'on this Petra I will build my Church'

1920s Petra: Pharao's Treasury: last of the Nabateans? Rediscoveed in 1812 by Burckhart

1920s the Seir pass from Eilath to Maon (Judges10:12, 2Chron26:7, Ezra2)

1920s Amman, or Rabba of the Children of Ammon (2Sam12)

1920s Damascus on the edge of the desert (2Kings5:12, Jer49:25)

1920s Damascus Ommayad Mosque, Once Church of John the Baptist (with inscription Ps145:13)


1920s Damascus: place of Caravanserai until the opening of the Suez canal

Vintage Holy Land Pictures (Nancy Groenendijk, 1960s):

Author Marius Groeneveld and photographer Nancy Groeneveld have succeeded in compiling a 'most modern book' on the Holy Land (1960!). They manage to cast an interesting light on what are called the 'Holy Places' and invite the pilgrim to read and see for himself, and compare what the Holy Scriptures say about these matters. The book and pictures also cast a light on 'theories of modern archeology' in light of what is known from many sources of ancient history.

CNTL +/- for larger/smaller

1960s the Negev, near Beersheva where Abraham settled (Gen21)

1960s Jericho: Moon City (Joshua6)

1960s Mt Tabor, Megiddo in the Jezreel Valley (Judges4)

1960s Beth-Sean: How the mighty have fallen (1Sam28, 31, 2Sam1)

1960s Canaanite Place of Sacrifice (1Kings9:15, 2Kings9/23)

1960s Judean Desert (1Kings9/22)

1960s Bethlehem, Fields of Ephrata (Luke1)

1960s Hills Surrounding Jerusalem (Joshua10)

1960s Ruins of Ceasarea (Acts8/10/21/23)

1960s Nazareth (Matt4, Luke2, Mark6)

1960s Samaria (1Kings16/22)

1960s Kana Vineyards (John2)

1960s Door Post of Kapernaum's Synagogue (Matt4/8/11)

1960s Lake of Gennesaret (Matt5)

1960s Olive Press in the Holy Land (Matt14, Mark6, Luke9, John6))

1960s Mt. Tabor in Galilee (Matt17, Mark9)

1960s Shechem: Give us this day our Daily Bread (John4)

1960s Jerusalem (Matt26-28, Acts1)

1960s Sarcophagus

1960s Jerusalem (Matt26-28, Acts1)

1960s Jerusalem (Matt26-28, Acts1)

1960s the ancient Jewish Temple Mount (Matt26-28, Acts1)

1960s Jerusalem viewed from Gethsemane (Matt26-28, Acts1)

1960s Gardens of Gethsemane (Matt26-28, Acts1)

1960s Stone Door of a Burial Chamber

1960s Ein Karem, a city in the Judean Hills (Luke 1)

1960s Ein Karem, a city in the Judean Hills (Luke 1)

1960s Traveler's Map of the Holy Land

Vintage Holy Land Pictures (King James Bible, 1972):

CNTL +/- for larger/smaller

Map of Israel in the OT and NT, by ThomasNelson

1970s Fortress Nimrud above Caesarea Philippi, by J.Couch

1970s Overlooking Sea of Galilee from Tiberias, by J.Couch

1970s Roman Ruins in Samaria by T.Kilpatrick

1970s Jerusalem Pool of Siloam and entrance to Hezekiahs Tunnel, by J.Couch

1970s Israel, Mount Hermon

1970s Israel, Olive Tree, by M.Spence

1970s Israel, Judean Wilderness, by M.Spence

1970s Gulf of Eilat looking at Jordan, by T.Kilpatrick

1970s Israel, Sheep, by G.Jeeninga

1970s Israel, Ibex, by T.Kilpatrick

1970s Israel, Bedouins, by T.Kilpatrick

1970s Marketplace in Jerusalem

1970s Israel, Relief from First Century Synagogue, by T.Kilpatrick

1970s Israel, Stone Manger in Solomon's Stables, by T.Kilpatrick

1970s Jerusalem, Loaves and Fishes, by T.Kilpatrick

1970s Jerusalem, Fruitseller, by J.Couch

1970s Jerusalem, Temple Mount, by J.Couch

1970s Jerusalem, Wailing Wall, by J.Couch

1970s Jerusalem, Worshippers with the Torah, by J.Couch

1970s Jerusalem, Mount of Olives, by J.Couch

1970s Israel, Sea of Galilee, by G.Jeeninga

1970s Israel, One of the Sources of the Jordan River, by J.Couch

1970s the Jordan River, by W.van Gemeren

1970s Israel, Salt Depostis in the Dead Sea, by T.Kilpatrick

Related Holy Land Archeology:

Roman Vault at Beth Shean that carried the wall of Beth-She'an over the river Jalud

Vintage Holy Land Travelogues

'The immovable East : studies of the people and customs of Palestine', by Baldensperger, 1912

Here 100s more travelogues on Ottoman Palestine (Wikipedia)

Memorable Quotes on the Holy Land

Genesis 14:13

“Abr(a)ham was a Hebrew, from whom all Jews and Arabs descend”

King David, 1000BC:

"If I forget you, O Jerusalem, May my right hand forget how to play the harp."

Martin Luther, 1538, 'Against the Sabbatarians: Letter to a good friend’

"Let them go to that country and to Jerusalem, build their temple, the priesthood, and submit to the law, and raise Moses with his law so they will be Jews again and possess the land. If that would happen, they would quickly find us behind them to become Jews ourselves”.

William Shakespeare (1564-1616):

"I'll make a voyage to the Holy Land"

"To wash this blood off from my guilty hand."

Bishop Thomas Newton 1754:

"They are dispersed among all nations, yet not confounded with any… After wars massacres and persecutions, they are still subsist, they are quite numerous. What supernatural power could have preserved the Jews in such a manner as no other nation on earth has been preserved? "

Frederick the Great ~1780:

The king of Prussia, Frederick the Great, in a discussion with his court chaplain once said: “Give me proof of the inspiration of the Bible.” The chaplain answered, “Israel, your majesty.”

US President John Adams, 1797-1801 to Jefferson:

"I will insist that the Hebrews have done more to civilize man than any other nation."

US President John Quincy Adams, 1825-1829:

"I believe in the rebuilding of Judea as an independent nation."

US traveler John Lloyd Stephens in 1825 on the Temple Mount:

"Since islamic rule, Jews are not allowed near the site of the temple: they just whisper to it from afar."

from 'Peasant Life in the Holy Land' (p.99, written 1851/2, publ 1906 by CT Wilson):

"The Late Bishop Gobat on his appointment to the English Bishopric in Jerusalem in 1849 found that there were practically no schools at all for the Arabic-speaking population"."

Abraham Lincoln, in 1863, on return of the Jews to their ancient homeland:

"a noble dream and one shared by many Americans."

Mary Lincoln-Todd, in 1865, on Lincoln's death:

"He was saying there was no city he so much desired to see as Jerusalem. And with the words half spoken on his tongue, the bullet of the assassin entered the brain, and the soul of the great and good President was carried by the angels to the New Jerusalem above."

Mark Twain, in 1867, Innocents Abroad p. 361-362:

"..... A desolate country whose soil is rich enough, but is given over wholly to weeds... a silent mournful expanse.... a desolation.... we never saw a human being on the whole route.... hardly a tree or shrub anywhere. Even the olive tree and the cactus, those fast friends of a worthless soil, had almost deserted the country."

“A fast walker could go outside the walls of Jerusalem and walk entirely around the city in an hour. I do not know how else to make one understand how small it is.”

Isaac Taylor, 'Words and Places', 1873:

"It is singular that the Philistines, the "strangers" from Crete", who merely occupied a narrow strip of the sea-coast, should through their contact with the western world, have given their name to the whole of the land of Palestine, in which they never succeeded in gaining any lasting supremacy."

Author Ludwig Schneller, born in Jerusalem and raised in Bethlehem, 1889 (Chapter on Bethlehem', Book: 'Kent Gij het Land?', 'Kennst du das Land?', KGhL p22):

"Until recently the surrounding lands were void and desolate. All labor appeared fruitless. Only remnants of cultivation of terraces near the foot of the mountains showed evidence of ancient Israelite thrift.

Ludwig Schneller, 1889 (Chapter on 'Land and Money', KGhL p66):

"The curse on this land Palestine is not only on account of the (Arab) population, but its (Turkish) government that takes from its subjects, and allows itself to be bribed"

Ludwig Schneller 1889 (Chapter on 'Land and Money', KGhL, p68:

"One can put the blame squarely on the Turkish government which has allowed the destruction of the forests in Palestine by allowing the removal of firewood and the grazing of young saplings"

Ludwig Schneller, 1889 (Chapter on 'Land and Money', KGhL p79):

"Moses gives the law to Israelites that plowing animals should not be unequally yoked. Yet Arab farmers in Palestine will gladly yoke a horse to a donkey, or a camel to a cow. This author has personally witnessed a donkey being yoked together with the farmer's wife."

Ludwig Schneller, 1889 (Chapter on 'Marriages'), KGhL p114:

"Polygamy leads to poverty, domestic discord and smaller families. Arab girls marry young, as young as 8 or 9 years old. She has no say, she goes to the highest bidder, and always to a relative."

Ludwig Schneller 1889 (Chapter on 'Bethlehem'), KGhL p21:

"There are 7000 inhabitants in Bethlehem (in 1889), with only several hundred Mohammedans.

Ludwig Schneller, 1889 (Chapter on 'Bethlehem', KGhL p21:

"Yet here in Bethlehem (with all the reminders of Christ's past presence), I experienced in the desperate conditons of this poor land something like the voice of the voice of an angel, saying: "He is no longer here"

Author Hans Habe quotes the British High Commissioner for Palestine saying in 1923 on the extremely fertile valley of Jezreel (p165)

"The land of Esdraelon was uninhabitable, not a house or a tree."

Teddy Roosevelt, ardent Zionist, in 1918, on return of the Jews to their ancient homeland:

"It seems to me that it is entirely proper to start a Zionist state around Jerusalem,’ for peace would only happen if Jews were given Palestine.”

President Woodrow Wilson, in 1918, on return of the Jews to their ancient homeland:

"The allied nations with the fullest concurrence of our government and people are agreed that in Palestine shall be laid the foundations of a Jewish Commonwealth.”

Chaim Weizmann (then a scientist) in 1921, while traveling by boat to the US to raise funds for the Hebrew University:

"Einstein explained his theory (of relativity) to me every day, and on my arrival i was fully convinced that he understood it.”

Albert Einstein, in 1921, on the Zionist ideal of a homeland:

"Zionism indeed represents a new Jewish ideal that can restore to the Jewish people the joy in their existence.”

Future first President of Israel, Chaim Weizmann, in 1921s:

"We look forward to a future where Jews and Arabs will live shoulder to shoulder in Palestine, and work together towards the welfare of the nation"

the Peel Commission, 1937:

"After violent unrest by Arabs, the British Peel Commission offered in a partition plan 80% of Palestine to the Arabs,and 20% to the Jews. The Jews accepted, the Arabs did not."

Yad Vashem:

"550,000 Jewish soldiers fought with the US forces against the fascists in World War 2, of whom over 10,000 were killed in action. Another 500,000 fought for the Soviet Union, of whom 120,000 died in combat and 80,000 were killed by the Germans as POWs, 100,000 fought for Poland, of whom 30,000 fell, 30,000 fought for Britain, and many other nations."

on the Arabs during WW2:

" During World War 2, the Arabs and Turks were aligned with the fascists powers: the Muslim Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husseini, spent the war in Berlin, and afterwards sought refuge in Egypt to avoid prosecution for war crimes."

IsraelToday: On land ownership in Palestine under the Ottomans (1517-1917):

There was no land ownership under the Ottomans before 1858, only after this time land registration became possible. Just half the lands of Palestine were considered arable by them ('Miri' = cultivated, land which could be rented for 10% of the harvest), but went mostly unused (or 'Mawat' = fallow).


On land ownership in Palestine under the British (1917 - 1947)

" When the British inherited this system in 1918 (chaotic and corrupt, to avoid payment of taxes), there were few documents except those of Arabs who had registered and of Jewish purchases from Arabs (often at very high prices). The British maintained the status quo".

On land ownership under Israel (after 1948)

In 1948, 15% of the land of Palestine was owned by Jews, 20% by Arabs, Druze and Christians (such as religious institutions aka 'Mulk-land'). The cultivated 'Miri' lands that were not owned by Arabs and who left in 1948 (so now unrented, unowned, uncultivated, fallow 'Mawat' lands) were nationalised in 1948.

President Truman on May 14, 1948, the first to recognize Israel's independence after the UN vote:

"The United States recognizes the provisional government as the de facto authority of the new State of Israel."

"I believe it has a glorious future before it - not just another sovereign nation, but as an embodiment of the great ideals of our civilization."

the London 'Economist' 02 Oct,1948:

"Jewish Agencies published an appeal for Arabs to stay in Haifa. They promised safety and immunity, but of the 62,000 not more than 4 or 5 thousand remained"

Hans Habe, 'In King David's Footsteps', 1970s (p135)

"Only after the partition plan (Balfour, 1920s), did many Arabs come in from Jordan, so not refugees, but immigrants, looking for economic chances in Jewish agricultural enterprises"

Hans Habe (p169)

"Arabs like to believe in a united Arab fatherland. In 1948, many Arabs left Israel to return home. After the Arab war of annihilation against foundling Israel, only 157,000 Arabs remained in Israel. Of those who left, while they may have lost their dwellings in Israel, the Arabs stole their fatherland."

Hans Habe

"Does the 'right of return' mean, that all stolen goods and possessions of expelled Jews from Arab lands in 1948 will be restored?"

"Until the 1940's, like Palestine itself, no independent Arab nations surrounding Palestine had existed for centuries or even thousands of years, if ever."

Jewish Owned 'Palestine Post' (later the 'Jerusalem Post'):

"Before 1948, the designation 'Palestinian' applied exclusively to the many Jews of Palestine."

Hans Habe (p167)

"At the same time of the flight of the Arabs out of Israel in 1948, the Jewish exodus from Arab lands started: 235,000 escaped from Morocco, 124,000 from Iraq, 46,000 from Yemen, 43,000 from Tunisia, 37,000 from Egypt, 32,000 from Libya, 12,000 from Algiers, and 8,000 from what is now Syria"

Hans Habe (p170+)

"The UN Organisation’s UNWRA recognized 536K refugees from Palestine in 1948. In 1966 this number had grown on paper to 1.35 million, at an assumed birthrate of 5% when in fact the Arab population had been stagnant at 600,000 in Palestine for 400 years under the Ottoman Turks."

Hans Habe on UN alchemy, 1948 and on (p170)

"The United Nation Organisation UNWRA (12,000 employees then) created the 'Palestinian' from a test tube: an Arab who had resided 2 years in Palestine was declared a 'Palestinian'."

On Palestine partition plans:

"Three times the Arabs were offered a partition plan with their own state: the 1917 Balfour declaration (which still included present-day Jordan), the 1937 Peel plan (with only 17% of the land going to the Jews, with a maximum population limit of 500K Jews), and in 1947 during the United Nations nationhood vote for Israel. Three times the Arabs rejected a Palestinian state."

Obama administration State Dep't study:

"During a recent study in 2015, it found that only 20,000 Palestinian refugees remained alive of the claimed 700,000 who fled in 1948 (note that the UN claims there are 5.1 million)"

Prime Minister David Ben Gurion, 1950s:

"If an expert says it can't be done, get another expert."

"To be a realist, you have to believe in miracles."

"We can defeat the Arabs a hundred times, and still have the same problem. They only need to defeat us once, and we are done for."

Pres candidate John F Kennedy, 1959:

"“Let us make it clear that we will never turn our backs on our steadfast friends in Israel, whose adherence to the democratic way must be admired by all friends of freedom.”

President Dwight Eisenhower, 1957 on return of the Jews to their ancient homeland:

""Our forces saved the remnant of the Jewish people of Europe for a new life and a new hope in the reborn land of Israel. Along with all men of good will, I salute the young state and wish it well."

"The health of our society depends upon a deep and abiding respect for the basic commandments of the God of Israel."

Mosje Dayan, in 'Story of my life' on land purchases in the 1930s:

"we purchased the land from Arabs - often at very inflated prices - and set up Jewish villages where there had once been Arab villages"

Mosje Dayan

"After a cabinet decision, the Israeli government announced that all refugees who went to Jordan, Lebanon, and Kuwait, and who wished to return would be allowed to do so up to August 10, 1067. But very few did. They had to go through the Jordanian government, who held them up and placed obstacles in their way"

Mosje Dayan

"Masada shall not fall again" (Mosje Dayan instituted this swearing in ceremony for the Armoured Corps soldiers atop Mt Massada

Title of Ephraim Kishon's book 1967:

"So sorry we won"

Golda Meir:

"We cannot lose because we have a secret weapon: we have no alternative"

Author Hans Habe, 'In King David's Footsteps', 1970s:

"The Arabs never objected to 400 years of Ottoman occupation, the only ones to protest were the Jews of Palestine" (p134)


"The failed Kolchoz was a product of communist society, the successful Kibbutz created the Jewish state."

"In 1967, after two decades of Jordanian occupation, only 10% of Arabs on the Westbank had access to running water (but in 1970: 76 ltr/d per person). At the same time (1967), Israel's water reserves efficiency usage was 90%, the highest in the world." (p63)


"Why don't the Arabs want our hospitals and street lights? Because it means we are here to stay."

Golda Meir, 'My Life', 1970s:

"We can forgive the Arabs for killing our children. We cannot forgive them for forcing us to kill their children. We will only have peace with the Arabs when they love their children more than they hate ours."

Abba Eban, 16 Dec 1970s:

"If Algeria introduced a resolution declaring that the earth was flat and that Israel had flattened it, it would pass by a vote of 164 to 13 with 26 abstentions."

Author Efraim Kishon:

"Israel is a country surrounded on all side by enemies, but the people's headaches are caused by the neighbors upstairs"

Cabinet Minister Naftali Bennett:

"Never again will Jews not have a country to go to when persecuted"

Arabic gilt-edged poster of Adolf Hitler in a UN relief organisation building in Beirut in 1982 (as seen by Lance Lambert)

"We will finish what Adolf Hitler started"

President Ronald Reagan, 1987:

"For the people of Israel and America are historic partners in the global quest for human dignity and freedom. We will always remain at each other's side."

Wiesje de Lange

"Relentless persecution explains the enormous difference in numbers between two 5000-year old cultures of the Chinese and the Hebrews"

A reporter:

"What might be the anatomical significance of thousands of praying muslims turning their rear ends to the location of God's Holy Temple?"

Spanish Journalist Sebastian Villar Rodriguez,' Europe died in Auschwitz', 2008:

"We killed six million Jews and replaced them with 20 million Muslims. In Auschwitz we burned a culture, thought, creativity, talent. We destroyed the chosen people, truly chosen, because they produced great and wonderful people who changed the world (129 Nobel Prize winners). We replaced science, art, international trade, and above all, the conscience of the world, with stupidity and ignorance, religious extremism and lack of tolerance, crime and poverty (7 Nobel Prize winners among whom Egyptian-born Yasser Arafat).”

The Guardian, 2017

"Incarceration of a palestinian terrorist for 3 years fetches him $400 per month salary, three to five years: $560/month. Sentences up to 15 years: $1690/month, and up to 20years: $2000/month, all funded by the European Union.”

The PA, 2018

"The Palestinian Authority paid terrorists and their families over $347 million last year, according to its own records”

Benjamin Netanyahu:

"If the Arabs put down their weapons today, there would be no more violence. If the Jews put down their weapons today, there would be no more Israel."

On Jerusalem:

"I have set watchmen upon thy walls, O Jerusalem" (Isaiah 62:6)

"Jerusalem is the city of the Great King" (Matt5:38)

"There are over 800 references to the city of Jerusalem in the Bible, not one in the Koran"

President Donald Trump, 2017:

"Today we finally acknowledge the obvious: that Jerusalem is Israel’s capital. This is nothing more or less than a recognition of reality. It is also the right thing to do. It’s something that has to be done.”

Even the Qur'an recognizes Israel as for the Jews:

"And thereafter We [Allah] said to the Children of Israel: 'Dwell securely in the Promised Land. And when the last warning will come to pass, we will gather you together in a mingled crowd.'" [Qur'an 17:104]”

the Apostle Paul, in Romans 11:26-27:

“And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob: For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins”

Some Middle-East History:

Youtube: Hatikvah, de hoop van 2000 jaar / Hope of 2000 years (Sheetmusic here)

Josephus' timeline and description of the destruction of Jerusalem 70AD - 'not one stone left on another'

Emperor Vespasian's building of Rome's coloseum using Jewish slaves

40 maps of Middle East history

'Lands of the Bible' by Dr Wilson (1852), p.231-274

on Samaritans

'Nabloos (= Neapolis / Shechem) and the Samaritans (in 1861)' by Sir George Grove (p. 241-258)

'Fragments of a Samaritan Turgum', by John W. Nutt (1874, note: slightly tedious)

on the name 'Palestine'

And did those feet, in ancient times, walk upon Palestine's mountain greens?

Jewish land purchases in pre-1947 Palestine

100 years after Balfour (Stephen Bayme on YouTube, very good)

Jerusalem in 1486 by Konrad von Grunenberg

Jerusalem around the 1890s

2000 years of Muslim and Catholics Persecution of Jews:

Wikipedia: Timeline of several millennia of persecutions of Jews

the Wikipedia list of persecutions in Excel, with Filter/Sort codes on location & type of persecution:





forced exile

religious decrees


(to sort: pls remove checked 'blanks' in top Cell per selection to select specific 'events' above)

Some examples of relentless persecution from 'rational and enlightened' Europe:

1021AD: A violent earthquake occurs, which some Greeks maintain is caused by a desecration of Jesus by the Jews. For this a number of Roman Jews are burnt at the stake

1349AD: Zurich: 600 Jews are burned at the stake and the entire Jewish community of Zurich is annihilated as a part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions.

1365AD:Jews of Lorraine are expelled after their presence is cited as the cause of lightning strikes which destroyed twenty-two houses.

Where the pointy KKK hats came from (Sanbenitos were used to persecute Jews in catholic Spain)

War Victims: interviews and survival stories in Dutch with Coenraad Rood, concentration camp prisoner of WW2 (English subtitles)

War Victims: interview in English with Coenraad Rood, concentration camp survivor of WW2 (in English)

Oorlogsbronnen: interviews in Dutch with WW2 victims

Persecution prints:

CNTL +/- for larger/smaller

1215AD Pointy hat and yellow marking for Jews made compulsory at 4th Council under Pope Innocentius III

1215AD Pointy hat and yellow marking for Jews made compulsory at 4th Council under Pope Innocentius III

13th century - Torture of Jews on a rack to force confessions

1475 Trente Execution after 8 days of Torture and forced Confessions

1493AD Burning of Jews from Woodcut of publisher Schedelse Weltchronik, printed in Nuremburg

1500s - Spanish Inquisition burning heretics, including many Maranos in Spain and Portugal

1509 - Print from Ulrich Tengler Lekenspiegel - Kneeling Jew made to swear in Court on Ex20vs7

1550 - Spanish Inquisition's 'Auto da Fe' burning at the stake, presided over by St Dominic at the Prado in Madrid, by A Barreguete 1482-1561

1600s Portuguese Inquisition in Goa India Against Jewish converts called Maranos,and against Hindus

1601-Spanish Inquisition in Mexico of Maranos - Burning at the stake of Governor's daughter Mariana Carvajal

1601 Spanish Inquisition in Mexico of Maranos - Trial and torture of Governor's daughter Francisca Carvajal

1680-Auto da Fe - Public burning of 18 Maranos at the wedding of Charles II of Spain June30, 1680

1680-Public burning of 18 Maranos at the wedding of Charles II of Spain June30, 1680

Condemned by the Inquisition wearing Pointy Sanbenito and cross of St Andrew, by Francisco de Goya, 1814

Spanish Inquisition - dungeon showing barbaric tortures

1680 - Public burning of 18 Maranos at the wedding of Charles II of Spain June30, 1680

16th Century Spanish Inquisition interogation of a Jew after being denounced anonymously by 2 masked witnesses at left

17th century - Jew being made to swear barefoot on bloody pigskin, Ref Schwabenspiegel

Holy Land History:

the Hebrews/Israelites = 1666 years

Babylonians = 50 years

Persians = 200 years

Greek Seleucids = 200 years

Romans = 300 years

Byzantines = 300 Years

Arabs = 460 years

Crusaders = 150 years

Mamlukes = 250 years

Turks = 400 years

British = 30 years

After 1948: the Jews, and counting

'Light unto the Nations' (Isaiah 49:6)

Temporal thought: "Born once, Die twice; Born twice, Die once"

Real Time Web Analytics